Development of novel methods for controlled coarse fragmentation of urinary tract stones may help to minimise the risk of
urinary tract infection and prevent the small stone fragments, responsible for residual stone formation, from entering into the calyxcalcification
system of a kidney. The experimental results demonstrated that the following parameters of a pulsed laser operating at
the 2097 nm (or the 1967 nm) wavelength were optimal for a controlled fractioning of the stones in air: the pulse duration of 20-30
ns, the repetition rate of 200-1000 Hz (or more), and pulse energy of 45-55 mJ. The relatively small pulse energy coupled with the
high repetition rate enabled the destruction of concrements into fragments small enough to be removed with the amplatz.