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ISSN: 2644-1373

LOJ Pharmacology & Clinical Research

Research ArticleOpen Access

Consumption of Herb with Neuroprotective Property Volume 3 - Issue 3

Salfarina Ramli1,2*

  • 1Department of Pharmacy, University Teknologi MARA Cawangan Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2Integrative Pharmacogenomics Institute (iPROMISE), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia

Received:August 02, 2023;   Published: August 09, 2023

Corresponding author:Salfarina Ramli, Department of Pharmacy, Integrative Pharmacogenomics Institute (iPROMISE), Universiti Teknologi MARA, University Teknologi MARA Cawangan Selangor, Malaysia

DOI: 10.32474/LOJPCR.2023.03.000161

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Short Communication

Neurons and brain are lipid-rich and oxygen-rich organs. The oxygen metabolism in the brain leads to the formation of free radicals as by-products, thus both neurons and brain are prone to oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Formation of free radicals in the brain is inevitable from mitochondrial activity that involves transport chain, neurotransmitter synthesis, and routine process of defense mechanism by phygocytic cells and oxidative cells responses that play important roles in maintaining the brain health and functionality. Free radicals are primarily categorized into reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species RNS. The example of ROS is superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical, whereas the example of RNS includes nitric oxide radical and peroxynitrite. Free radicals are highly reactive molecules or atoms that contain unpaired electrons. They react with molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and fatty acids to get electrons and stabilize themselves but resulting in structural and functional abnormalities to the molecules. Furthermore, aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal further react with DNA and proteins to form adducts which contribute to pathogenesis.

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