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Advancements in Cardiology Research & Reports

Review Article(ISSN: 2770-5447)

Thresholds and Upper Limits of Training-Induced Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Immune, and Musculoskeletal Adaptations in Able-Bodied People and Neurologically Impaired Patients Volume 3 - Issue 2

Pierre A Guertin*

  • Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Laval University Medical Center, Canada

Received: September 19, 2020;   Published:September 29, 2020

Corresponding author: Pierre A Guertin, Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Laval University Medical Center, Canada

DOI: 10.32474/ACR.2020.03.000157


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The benefits of exercising are well-recognized–experts and governmental health agencies agree that regular endurance training generally reduces the risks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In turn, the consequences of a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity caused by disease or trauma are also well-documented- e.g., walking or being moderately active physically less than 30 minutes per day generally increases the risks of developing obesity, infections, osteoporosis, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular problems, and dyslipidemia in able-bodied persons. However, the threshold levels of exercising for meaningful health benefits in people suffering from paralysis or the upper limits of endurance training beyond which, injuries, sequelae, and long-term secondary problems that may be induced in able-bodied and people with disabilities remain unclear. This said, it is becoming increasingly clear that significant health problems including severe stress injuries and sudden heart failures may be experienced during long-distance running - e.g., marathons, triathlons, and ultra-triathlons. This review summarizes data on injuries and fatal events associated with endurance exercise training. Impacts on the immune, cardiovascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal systems in disabled and nondisabled individuals are also discussed.

Keywords: Spinal Cord Injury; Performances; Marathon; Iron Man; Tendinitis; Cardiac Arrest; Infections; Stressed Fractures; Overtraining

Abstract| Introduction| Concluding Remarks| References|


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