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ISSN: 2637-4692

Modern Approaches in Dentistry and Oral Health Care

Research Article(ISSN: 2637-4692)

Dental Disease Burden Snacking, and Tooth Brushing Habits and Among 13-17-Year-Olds with Fluorosis Compared to those without Dental Fluorosis in Kajiado Kenya

Volume 2 - Issue 2

Gladys N Opinya1* and Mavindu Mildred Ndoti2

  • Author Information Open or Close
    • 1Professor of Paediatric Dentistry, Department of Paediatric Dentistry & Orthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    • 2Department of Paediatric Dentistry & Orthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya

    *Corresponding author: Gladys Opinya, Department of Paediatric Dentistry & Orthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi

Received: April 13, 2018;   Published: May 08, 2018

DOI: 10.32474/MADOHC.2018.02.000134

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The dental disease burden of periodontitis, gingivitis caries, and fluorosis has to be assessed objectively with patients’ understanding and therefore rationalise planning for oral health resources, utilization, and personnel distribution to tackle the disease burden. The study sought to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the snacking and brushing habits to determine the dental disease burden, among 13-17- year- olds who were affected by dental fluorosis in comparison with those who were not affected with dental fluorosis in Kajiado North District of Kenya. The study cross-section and it compared dental disease burden among two age-matched population groups one with varying degrees of dental fluorosis and the second group without dental fluorosis teeth in primary school children aged between 13-15 years of age. Nine primary schools were randomly selected in Kajiado North County which had been purposively selected. The instruments of examination were a questionnaire on child’s biodata. Disease burden was determined through a clinical examination for each child under natural light. Plaque and gingival scores, dental caries the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) were, and dental fluorosis was assessed using the Thylstrup Fejerskov index (TFI).

The study involved 248 children, who were matched for age and gender aged between 13-17 years with a mean age of 14.75±1.45 years. A total of 3472 teeth were examined, and prevalence of dental fluorosis in 3472 teeth of 124 children who were matched for age and gender with 124 without dental fluorosis was 3,375 (97.2 %) of the teeth surfaces. The prevalence dental fluorosis in 1680 maxillary teeth was (96.9%) while mandibular teeth surface it affected 1690 (97.5%) teeth. The differences were significant with a Chi-square test = 85.67 d.f=12, p= 0.001at 95%CL. The mean plaque score of 0.98±0.61 in children with dental fluorosis was lower compared with the mean plaque of 1.24±0.69 for children without fluorosis. The difference significant with a Pearson Chi square=72.540 d.f=12 p=0.002 at 95%CL. The children with fluorosis who brushed once after breakfast had the lowest plaque scores of 0.85±0.5 compared to those without dental fluorosis and the difference were statistically significant [one-way ANOVA F=- 2.97, p=0.003 at 95%CL. The gingival index for that ith fluorosis was 0.46±0.55 and individuals without fluorosis the gingival index was 0.48±0.53, and the difference was insignificant. However, the prevalence of gingivitis in girls was 139(93%) while the boys had a prevalence of 77(79%). The difference was statistically significant difference, Pearson Chi-square test=75.34, d.f=12, p=0.001 at 95% CL. Periodontitis was found in 3(1.2%) participants of those with dental fluorosis none of those with dental fluorosis were affected by periodontitis.

The caries experience for the 248 children was at a low mean DMFT of 0.45±1.15. The individuals with dental fluorosis had a mean DMFT of 0.54±1.24 while those without dental fluorosis had a mean DMFT was 0.36±1.04, and the difference in the mean DMFT with a t-test was insignificant. In general children with dental fluorosis, who consumed sugary snacks had higher mean DMFTs when compared with children without dental fluorosis who consumed sugary snacks. Although there was a higher disease burden in individuals with dental fluorosis when compared with those without dental fluorosis, the difference was insignificant with a paired t-test, where t=1.291, d.f=3, p=0.287 at 95%CL. In conclusion, the individuals who had varying severities of dental fluorosis with frequent snacking had higher DMFT. Also the disease burden was higher in children with dental fluorosis.

Keywords: Fluorosed Teeth; Disease Burden; Snacking; Adolescents

Abbrevations: DMFT: Decayed Missing, Filled Teeth; TFI: Thylstrup Fejerskov index; WHO: World Health Organization; TFI: Thylstrup and Fejerskov index

Abstract| Introduction| Materials and Methods| Results| Discussion| Conclusion| References|