With an average survival rate of 95%, the endosseous dental implant is one of the most successful and predictable innovations in
modern dentistry. The factors contributing to the success, and failure, of dental implants are now well-established [1-6] and include the
oral and systemic health of the patient, patient age, implant type, implant surface, implant length, bone type, surgical site (mandible
or maxilla), type of surgery (one- or two-stage) and immediate (fresh socket) or delayed implant placement. Other important aspects
regarding the success of an implant include the skill, experience and, apparently gender, of the surgeon . Early implant failures, a
prevalence of about 5.6%, most often is observed in edentulous upper jaws, notably with implants having a turned surface. There is
some controversy as to whether pre- and post-operative antibiotic coverage is needed, but overall antibiotic therapy can be helpful but
apparently is only essential when infection is present.